Add Keywords

The final option in the Advanced Search form is to select keywords for your search by typing them into the Add Keywords box. Add Keywords can be used alone or in combination with Add Cultures and Add Subjects on the Advanced Search page.

How you structure and input your keyword string is important for limiting or maximizing your results.

Using only the Add Keywords box without pre-selecting any Cultures or Subjects will match your keywords against the entire contents of eHRAF - searching across all regions and all cultures for exact paragraph-level matches. This search method works well if the word/phrase has a distinct, unambiguous meaning (e.g. "evil eye", "irrigat*", etc).

The Advanced Search page also offers you the option to toggle Boolean operators (AND, OR, NOT) within the Add Keywords box as well as between the other fields on the page. See Boolean Operators for more.

Tips for Adding Keywords:

There are no right or wrong keywords to use in Advanced Search. For in-situ quick tips on how to type in your keywords for more accurate results, you can click on the Text Examples link beneath the input field in the Add Keywords box.

A search for culture names, countries or regions will be far more successful if you choose them from the “Add Culture” menu than if you enter their names (e.g. Afghan, Pashtun, Asia) as keywords.

You can put a phrase in quotation marks ( " " ) to return searches for that exact phrase or combination of words only.

Truncating your word with an asterisk at the stem (e.g. hunt*) will retrieve singular as well as plural forms and other word forms (e.g. hunting, hunter, hunted, etc.).

Sometimes it is better not to truncate your terms. For example, adding an asterisk to a search for "seal" – meaning the animal – may result in texts containing the words "sealant" or "sealed".

Do not use hyphens (e.g. enter "semi nomadic" instead of "semi-nomadic").

Do not use the conjunctions "and" or "or". Use the Boolean operators provided instead. Be sure to set the AND and OR operators carefully!

You can return to Advanced Search at any time to choose new keywords or add other keywords that you might have discovered in the course of reviewing your search results.

You may also choose to add an additional search clause to Advanced Search so that you can combine or exclude sets of Keywords and/or Subjects from your search. See Add (or remove) a search form.