Alvarsson, Jan-åke, 1952-. The Mataco of the Gran Chaco: an ethnographic account of change and continuity in Mataco socio-economic organization

Table of Contents

Publication Information

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1. The Mataco — The “different People”

1.2. Aim

1.3. Arrangement

1.4. Research Conditions

1.5. A Critical Review Of The Sources

1.5.1. Main Ethnographic Sources

1.5.2. Complementary Ethnographic Sources

1.5.3. Presentation Of Informants

Chapter 2 The Gran Chaco

2.1. Environment

2.2. Regional History

2.2.1. History Before The 16th Century

2.2.2. First Contacts With The Whites, 1520—1600

2.2.3. The Jesuit Era, 1600—1767

2.2.4. The Franciscan Era, 1768—1813

2.2.5. The War Of Independence, 1814—1836

2.2.6. The National Franciscan Era, 1836—1881

2.2.7. The Era Of Explorations And Migrations, 1882—1931

2.2.8. The Chaco War, 1932—1936

2.2.9. Colonization And Evangelical Missions, After 1937

2.3. The Present Situation Of The Indians In The Gran Chaco

2.3.1. The Situation In Northern Chaco Central

2.4. Local History

2.4.1. Villa Montes

2.4.2 The Mataco Settlement Of Villa Montes

2.4.3. Algarrobal

Chapter 3 Notes On Mataco Cosmology

3.1. Information On Mataco Religion And Shamanism

3.2. Mataco Cosmology And Cosmography

3.3. Notes On Mataco Values

3.4. The Mataco Calendar

Chapter 4 Social Organization

4.1. Problems In The Description Of Mataco Social Organization

4.2. Traditional Mataco Social Concepts

4.2.1. Wenhayek Wikyi’ And Other Ethnic Groups

4.2.2. The Wikyi’-group And The Wikyi’-category

4.2.3. Wikyiwet — The Village

A) The Village Is Situated Along A Road

B) The Huts Are Arranged In Clusters Around An Open Space

C) The Village May Be Divided Into Two, Separate Sections

4.2.4. ’o’i’yhaj Tâ Lhamén’hya — The Kindred

4.2.5. Nowetlheley — The Family Group Or Household

4.3. The Problem Of Descent

4.3.1. Relationship Terminology

4.3.2. Structure Of The Wikyi’

4.4. Marriage Rules

4.4.1. Eligible Partners

A) Kindred Exogamy

B) Marriage Rules For The Wikyi’

C) Village Exogamy

4.4.2. Strategic Alliances

4.4.3. Monogamy

4.5. Matrimony

4.5.1. The Marriage Process A) Preceding Discussions

B) Initiative To Sexual Liaisons

C) Trials And Bride Service

4.5.2. The Wedding

4.5.3. Postmarital Residence

4.5.4. Divorce

4.6. Present-day Conditions Among The Mataco

4.6.1. Algarrobal

4.6.2. Villa Montes

4.7. Social Change And Continuity

Chapter 5 Political And Legal Organization

5.1. Introduction To The Study Of Mataco Political And Legal Organization

5.2. Traditional Mataco Political Entities

5.2.1. The Wikyi’-group

5.2.2. Fusion, Fission And Interaction Of The Wikyi’-group

5.2.3. Wikyiwet — The Village

5.2.4. Nowetlhleley — The “family Council”

5.3. Executive Councils

5.3.1. Wikyihutwek — The Wikyi’-council

5.3.2. Wikyihutwek — The Village Assembly

5.4. Political Leaders

5.4.1. Niyat — The Traditional Spokesman

5.4.2. Capitán — The Appointed Agent

5.4.3. Hiyawu’ — The Shaman

5.4.4. Lhametwo’ — The Evangelical “encargado”

5.4.5. Nowet Lhámhiya — The Household Leader

5.5. Legal Organization

5.5.1. Conflicts Between Individuals

A) Theft

B) Adultery

C) Rape

D) Homicide

5.5.2. Conflicts Between Collectives

A) Escalated Conflicts

B) Territorial Conflicts

C) Hockey

D) Armed Conflicts

5.5.3. Conflicts With The Mestizos

5.6 Present Conditions Among The Mataco

5.6.1. Algarrobal

5.6.2. Villa Montes

5.7. Change And Continuity In Mataco Political Organization

Chapter 6 Economic Organization

6.1. Introduction To Mataco Economic Organization

6.1.1. Problems In The Description Of The Mataco Economy

6.2. Resources And Tools

6.2.1. Land And Property

6.2.2. Tools

6.3. Work Organization

6.3.1. Work Arrangement According To The Time Of Day

6.3.2. Work Organization According To Seasons [graphic Omitted] W = Winter/dry Season (mainly Yakyup) S = Summer/rainy Season (mainly Jwiyetilh) A = All Year Round/average Note: The Table Shows Estimated Allocation Of Active Working Hours In Average. Leisure Activities Are Not Included. The Figures Are Assessments, Based On Field—notes (combination Of Observation, Interviews And Knowledge Of Time Expenditure) Of 38 Man-days In February And May 1984.

6.3.3. Labour Arrangement And Social Organization

6.3.4. Division Of Labour According To Sex

6.3.5. Division Of Labour According To Age

6.3.6. Division Of Labour According To Specialty

6.4. Production

6.4.1 Kyowalhan - Gathering (and Use Of Gathered Foods)

6.4.2. Kyowalhan — Honey Gathering

6.4.3. Kyowalhan — Hunting

6.4.4. T’iwoqoy — Fishing

6.4.5. Kyumlhi’ — Horticulture

6.4.6. Kyumlhi’ — Animal Husbandry

6.4.7. Kyumlhi’ — Handicraft

6.4.8. Kyumlhi’ — Work Migrations And Employment

6.5. Distribution

6.5.1. Sharing

6.5.2 Consumption

6.5.3. Accumulation

6.5.4. Trade

6.6 Present-day Conditions

6.6.1. Algarrobal

6.6.2. Villa Montes

6.7. Economic Change And Continuity

Chapter 7 Concluding Remarks On Change And Continuity

7.1. The Problem Of Change And Continuity

7.1.1. A Review Of The Implications Of History

7.1.2. Notes On Change

7.1.3. Notes On Continuity

7.1.4. Change And Continuity In A Rural And An Urban Environment

7.2. Explanatory Variables

7.3. Implications

Resumen En Español (summary In Spanish)

Publication Information

Paragraph Subjects (OCM)

Publication Information The main body of the Publication Information page contains all the metadata that HRAF holds for that document.

Author: Author's name as listed in Library of Congress records

Title: The Mataco of the Gran Chaco: an ethnographic account of change and continuity in Mataco socio-economic organization

Published By: Original publisher Uppsala, Sweden ; Stockholm, Sweden: Academiae Upsaliensis ; Distributed by Almqvist &Wiskell International. 1988. XVI, 314 p. ill.

By line: Author's name as appearing in the actual publication by Jan-åke Alvarsson

HRAF Publication Information: New Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files, 1997. Computer File

Culture: Culture name from the Outline of World Cultures (OWC) with the alphanumberic OWC identifier in parenthesis. Mataco (SI07)

Subjects: Document-level OCM identifiers given by the anthropology subject indexers at HRAF Fauna (136); Flora (137); Food quest (220); Division of labor by gender (462); Household (592); Community structure (621); Cosmology (772);

Abstract: Brief abstract written by HRAF anthropologists who have done the subject indexing for the document This dissertation gives a detailed, diachronic description of the social, political, legal and economic organization of the Mataco - hunters and gatherers of the tropical dry forest of the Bolivian Gran Chaco. The account starts with a critical review of the main ethnographic sources on the Chaco peoples and, after sections on the enviornment and the local history, it presents an attempt to reconstruct the socio-economic organization of the Mataco before the colonization of the area, i.e. before the turn of the century. In addition, on the basis of Alvarsson's field notes from five years among the Mataco, new ethnographic data is included. The data demonstrate that, in spite of evident social change, and in contrast to other Indian peoples of the region, the Mataco have refused to be incorporated into the national society.

Document Number: HRAF's in-house numbering system derived from the processing order of documents 9

Document ID: HRAF's unique document identifier. The first part is the OWC identifier and the second part is the document number in three digits. si07-009

Document Type: May include journal articles, essays, collections of essays, monographs or chapters/parts of monographs. Monograph

Language: Language that the document is written in English

Note: Revision of the author's dissertation Includes bibliographical references (p. 302-310) and index

Field Date: The date the researcher conducted the fieldwork or archival research that produced the document 1976-1985

Evaluation: In this alphanumeric code, the first part designates the type of person writing the document, e.g. Ethnographer, Missionary, Archaeologist, Folklorist, Linguist, Indigene, and so on. The second part is a ranking done by HRAF anthropologists based on the strength of the source material on a scale of 1 to 5, as follows: 1 - poor; 2 - fair; 3 - good, useful data, but not uniformly excellent; 4 - excellent secondary data; 5 - excellent primary data Ethnologist-5

Analyst: The HRAF anthropologist who subject indexed the document and prepared other materials for the eHRAF culture/tradition collection. John Beierle ; 1995

Coverage Date: The date or dates that the information in the document pertains to (often not the same as the field date). ca.1900-1985

Coverage Place: Location of the research culture or tradition (often a smaller unit such as a band, community, or archaeological site) Gran Chaco region, Bolivia, Argentina

LCSH: Library of Congress Subject Headings Mataco Indians


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